Fill the gaps with the relative pronouns who, which, where or whose
1. We’re so grateful to the man _______ helped us.
2. They are going to spend the summer in Malaga _______ they have an apartment. 3. Drew Barrymore, _______ godfather is Steven Spielberg, comes from a famous family of actors. 4. I’m not a fan of the music _______ they play on this radio station.
5. This is the photograph _______ won first prize.
6. The band, _______ album is at the top of the charts, is starting a world tour next month.
7. Where are the biscuits _______ I bought this morning? Don’t tell me you’ve eaten them already!
8. I don’t know anyone _______ doesn’t like chocolate.
9. The hospital _______ I was born has been demolished.
10. The pangolin, _______ is the world’s most trafficked mammal, may eat up to seventy million insects a year!
Which of the above sentences would still be grammatically correct if you omitted the relative pronoun?
1. who 2. where 3. whose 4. which 5. which 6. whose 7. which 8. who 9. where 10. which
Answer to the bonus question
You can omit the relative pronoun in 4. and 7.
Relative pronouns can be omitted IF they refer to the object of the verb and not the subject.
4. I’m not a fan of the music they play on this radio station. 7. Where are the biscuits I bought this morning? Don’t tell me you’ve eaten them already!
They (subject) play the music (object) I (subject) bought the biscuits (object)
My advice: If you feel more comfortable NOT omitting the relative pronoun that is perfectly fine! Both ways are okay. What’s more, as you become more and more confident with your English skills you may start to know instinctively when you can leave out the relative pronoun.
Would you like to practise some more grammar topics?
Pangolins are shy and quirky-looking creatures. They are unique in that they are the only mammals with scales.
These scales are made of keratin, the same substance found in hair, fingernails, and a) __________. Thanks to their appearance, behaviour, and diet, pangolins are sometimes known as scaly anteaters.
Yet, despite their appearance, pangolins are actually more closely related to carnivores such as dogs and b) __________. It’s strange when you consider that pangolins don’t have teeth!
There are eight different kinds of pangolin, including the black-bellied pangolin and the Sunda pangolin. Four species are c) __________ to Asia and four to Africa.
Depending on their species, they are found in a wide variety of habitats from tropical d) __________ to savannah or desert. Most live on the ground but some are tree-dwelling.
These solitary, and generally nocturnal creatures have a long slender snout and a e) __________ long tongue. Fully stretched, it’s about forty centimetres long! The tongue is narrow and sticky, perfect for slurping up insects from tunnels and hard-to-reach places.
Their strong f) __________ allow them to rip into ant and termite mounds or to tear g) __________ off trees.
Since they don’t have teeth, pangolins h) __________ insects whole. They ingest stones and they also have spines inside their stomach which help to break down their food.
Pangolins play a vital ecological i) __________ in that they help to keep down ant and termite populations. This is why they are known as guardians of the forest. It is estimated that, thanks to their j) __________ appetite, pangolins can polish off seven million insects a year!
To protect them while they are foraging, pangolins have strong muscles which help to seal shut their nostrils and ears so that the ants and termites can’t bite them.
When threatened pangolins behave like armadillos and hedgehogs – they roll up into a tight ball. Their hard scales act like a suit of armour, protecting their head and soft belly. This is in fact how pangolins got their name – ‘pengguling’ in Malay means ‘something that rolls up’.
This defensive ball can k) __________ predators as formidable as lions, but unfortunately, it’s this very posture that makes them so easily caught by humans who can just pick them up.
Pangolins don’t have big broods. African pangolins usually give birth to just one pup, whilst Asian pangolins only have one to three l) __________. When they are born the pangopups have soft scales which soon harden. The mothers will curl around their young to protect them while they are sleeping or if they sense danger.
Not so fun facts
Tragically, these gentle and fascinating creatures face immense threats to their survival such as poaching and habitat loss.
They are regarded as the most trafficked mammal in the world, due to a high demand for their meat and scales.
In some areas of Asia, pangolin meat is regarded as a delicacy and pangolin scales are used in traditional medicine, despite the fact that, as with rhino horn, there is no scientific evidence of health benefits.
All eight species are listed as threatened with extinction, two are critically endangered.
1 d) 2 h) 3 g) 4 e) 5 b) 6 c) 7 a) 8 f)
a) horns b) bears c) native d) forest e) phenomenally f) claws g) bark h) swallow i) role j) insatiable k) deter l) offspring
If you’d like a printable version of Precious Pangolins, see link at the top.
Find out more about pangolins and why we should care about their fate
Each giraffe has a unique a) ____________ of spots just like humans have distinct fingerprints.
The second part of their scientific name ‘giraffa camelopardalis’ originated from their b) ____________ to a camel crossed with a leopard.
Just the neck of a giraffe is taller than most humans at about 2m. In order for the blood to be pumped all the way up to the c) ____________ , the giraffe has very high blood pressure, double that of humans.
Giraffes can comfortably walk at 15km/h and when they run they can reach speeds of up to 55km/h.
Giraffes have a rather curious way of walking: both legs on one side of the body move forward together and then the legs on the other side. This is a d) ____________ shared by cats and camels.
Since they are such large animals giraffes need a lot of fuel so they spend most of the day eating. They eat around 30kg of food a day – acacia leaves, e) ____________, fruits and flowers.
Like cows they are ruminants – their stomach has four compartments. They chew their food, f) ____________ it and then they regurgitate it (= bring the food back up into the mouth) to chew it again.
Giraffes produce a sticky g) ____________ which helps protect them from any thorns they might swallow when eating.
Despite their size, giraffes only need to drink water every few days which is fortunate as drinking from a watering hole is quite tricky because they have to h) ____________ out their front legs so that they can reach down to the water. Giraffes are also able to get water from the vegetation they eat.
Not only do giraffes have extremely long necks and legs but they also have a seriously long tongue – around 50cm. Their tongue is prehensile which means it is able to dexterously i) ____________ leaves and buds and pull them off.
Giraffes get by on very little sleep, just a couple of hours a day. They tend to sleep standing up as lying down makes them very vulnerable to j) ____________. They take short naps, sometimes lasting only 5 minutes!
Giraffes have a gestation period of about 15 months and they give birth standing up. The k) ____________ are already around 1.8m tall and are able to stand within an hour of being born!
Not known for being aggressive creatures they can defend themselves, however, with an extremely powerful kick which can be l) ____________.
B) Idioms with NECK
Underline the correct word to complete the expression.
Sorry, I can’t meet you for a coffee, I’m down / up to my neck in housework as we have guests coming to stay tonight.
I need to buy a better pillow. It’s too high and I have a crack / crick in my neck every morning.
Can you pick your toys up off the floor please! I’m going to break / stick my neck one of these days.
I’m going to be in your neck of thehoods / woods this weekend. Do you fancy meeting up for lunch?
I’m not going to the party if Jeff is going to be there. That guy is a pain / sore in the neck.
A) a) pattern b) resemblance c) brain d) trait e) twigs f) swallow g) saliva h) spread i) grasp j) predators k) calves l) lethal
B) 1) up to my neck (with a huge amount) 2) a crick in my neck (a stiff or painful neck) 3) break my neck (=hurt myself badly) 4) in your neck of the woods (in your area, where you live/work) 5) a pain in the neck (= really annoying)